Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine is an international， peer-reviewed general medical journal published in English monthly by the Chinese Academy of Clinical Medicine and distributed worldwide. Manuscripts are welcome from any part of the world.
Manuscripts submitted to Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine should meet following standards： the material is original； the writing is clear； the study methods are appropriate； the data are valid； the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.
Previous publication or duplicate submission
Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously and are not under consideration by another publication. Copies of possibly duplicative materials that have been previously published or are being considered elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.
A complete report following presentation at a meeting or publication of preliminary findings elsewhere (e.g.， an abstract) can be considered.
CATEGORIES OF ARTICLES
The Journal publishes， original article， review， medical progress， clinical practice，brief report， viewpoint， case report， letter， and many other categories of articles. Topics of interest include all subjects that relate to the medicine.
Manuscripts on clinical trials，epidemiological studies， studies of social medicine， especially large scale randomized controlled trials are welcome. Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis， the methods， the main results of the study and the conclusions. More than 20 references are encouraged to be cited in this kind of articles.
Review articles include systematic， critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to different medical topics， such as cause， diagnosis， prognosis， therapy， or prevention， etc. The length is limited to 2000－4000 words (not including tables， figures， and references).
This kind of articles is mainly solicited， but we also consider unsolicited articles. The length of the article is within 2000－4000 words (not including tables， figures， and references).
These articles are short reports of original studies. They must not exceed 1500 words with no more than 2 tables and/or two illustrations and 15 references.
Authors in these articles provide their experiences for diagnosis， treatment or prevention of diseases. The length is up to 1500 words with no more than 2 tables and/or two illustrations and 15 references.
Personal views are welcomed and length should be 1000－3000 words (not including tables， figures， and references). We like personal views to be signed； no anonymous pieces are published.
Authors usually describe one to three patients or a single family. The text is limited to no more than 2500 words， and up to 15 references.
Letters to editors discussing a recent Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine article should be received within 3 months of the article's publication and should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Designate a corresponding author and provide a complete address， telephone and fax numbers， and Email address.
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole， from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design， or acquisition of data， or analysis and interpretation of data； and (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content； and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1， 2， and 3 must all be met 1.
If authorship is attributed to a group， all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship as described above. A group must designate at least one individual as corresponding author. Other group members may be listed in an Acknowledgment.
Conflicts of interest
Authors should indicate relevant conflicts of interest， including specific financial interests relevant to the subject of their manuscript， in their covering letter. Authors without relevant financial interests in the manuscript should indicate no such interest.
Manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitting to Biomedical Journals by ICMJE (www.icmje.org).
On the title page include the full names and affiliations of all authors. If an author's affiliation has changed since the work was done， list the new affiliation as well. Titles should be concise and descriptive. The name， address， telephone number， fax number， and Email address of the correspondence author should be addressed. Any grant support that requires acknowledgment should be mentioned on this page.
Measurements of length， height， weight， and volume should be reported in metric units (meter， kilogram， or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be given in millimeters of mercury. All hematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System Units (SI).
Use nonproprietary names of drugs， devices， and other products， unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion.
Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text.
A covering letter signed by all authors includes (1) information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the study； (2) the statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors and that the criteria for authorship have been met； (3) the statement on financial or other conflict of interests； and (4) any suggestions such as referring possible unqualified reviewers due to conflict of interests， etc. The corresponding author must sign the acknowledgment statement. Authors should obtain written permission from all individuals named in an acknowledgment.
Tables should be simple and not duplicate information in the text of the article. Tables should be numbered consecutively， and headed by a concise title. Place explanatory matter in footnotes， not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table. For footnotes use the following symbols in this sequence： *， △， #， **， etc.
Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.
For experimental investigations of human subjects， state in the METHODS section that an appropriate institutional review board approved the project. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees， the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki 2 should be followed. For investigations of human subjects， state in the METHODS section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants.
Patient descriptions， photographs， and pedigrees
Include a signed statement of informed consent to publish patient descriptions， photographs， and pedigrees from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified in such written descriptions， photographs， or pedigrees.
Permissions required to reproduce or adopt material
Acknowledge all text， illustrations， and tables adopted or reproduced from other publications and submit permission from the original publishers (or other copyright owner) to republish in print， online， and licensed versions of the Journal.
Number references in the order they appear in the text； do not alphabetize. In text， tables， and legends， identify references with superscript Arabic numerals. When listing references， abbreviate names of journals according to Index Medicus.
Examples of reference style：
1 Hayden M， Pignone M， Phillips C， et al. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events： a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med,2002,136： 161－172.
2 National Health and Medical Research Council. A guide to the development， implementation and evaluation of clinical practice guidelines. Canberra： NHMRC， AusInfo， 1999.
3 Cumulative number of reported cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Geneva： World Health Organization， 2003. (Accessed April 9， 2003 at http：//www.who.int/csr/sarscountry/2003_04_04/en/.)
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct citation of the text.
REPORT OF ORIGINAL DATA
Include a structured abstract of no more than 500 words for original articles (Objective，Methods，Results and Conclusions)and review articles (Objective，Data sources，Study selection， Results and Conclusions). Abstracts are not required for editorials， viewpoints， and case report， etc.
Three to 6 words or short phrases should be provided at the end of the abstract. Terms from the medical subject heading (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used； if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms， present terms may be used.
Introduction should be short and arresting. State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.
Describe your selection of the observational or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory animals， including controls) clearly. Identify the age， sex， and other important characteristics of the subjects.
Identify the methods， apparatus (list the manufacturer's name and original country in parentheses)， and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods， including statistical methods； provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known； describe new or substantially modified methods， give reasons for using them， and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used， including generic name(s)， dose(s)， and route(s) of administration.
Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements including the protocol (study population， interventions or exposures， outcomes， and the rationale for statistical analysis)， assignment of interventions (methods of randomization， concealment of allocation to treatment groups)， and the method of masking (blinding). Authors are recommended to refer to the CONSORT Statement 3 for details.
Overall describe the major findings of the study. Present your results in logical sequence in the text， tables and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations； emphasize or summarize only important observations.
Summarize the major findings. Discuss possible problems with the methods used. Compare your results with previous work. Discuss the clinical and scientific (if any) implications of your findings and their limitations. Suggest further work. Produce a succinct conclusion.
1.International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. (Accessed September 6， 2005 at： http：//www.icmje.org)
2. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki： Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. (Accessed September 6， 2005 at： http：// www.wma.net/e/policy/pdf/ 17c.pdf)
3. Moher D， Schulz KF， Altman D， for the CONSORT Group. The CONSORT statement： revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. (Accessed September 6， 2005 at： http：//www.conso